References used while writing these LichenLand pages
- Casselman, K.L. 1993. Craft of the Dyer - colour from Plants and Lichens. Dover Publications, Inc., N.Y.
- Esslinger, T.L. and R.S. Egan. 1995. A Sixth Checklist of the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous, and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98(4).
- Goward, T., McCune, B, and D. Meidinger. 1994. The Lichens of British Columbia Illustrated Keys, part 1 - Foliose and Suamulose Species. Ministry of Forests, Research Program, British Columbia.
- Hale, Mason E. 1979. How to know the lichens. Pictured Key Nature Series.
- Hale, Mason E. 1983. The Biology of Lichens. 3rd Ed. Contemporary Biology Series. Edward Arnold
- Hammer, S. 1995. A Synopsis of the Genus Cladonia in the Northwestern United States. The Bryologist 98(1).
- Hawksworth, D.L. and D.J. Hill. 1984. The Lichen-Forming Fungi. Chapman and Hall, New York.
- Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand Lichens. P.D. Hasselberg, Government Printer, Wellington.
- McCune, B. and T. Goward. 1995. Macrolichens of the Northern Rocky Mountains. Mad River Press.
- Thomson, J.W. 1984. American Arctic Lichens 1. The Macrolichens. Columbia University Press, New York.
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