Treaty of Peace between Latvia and Russia, done at Moscow, Completed and Signed at Riga, August 11,1920.
RUSSIA on the one hand and LATVIA on the other, being strongly desirous of bringing to an end the present state of war between them, and of bringing about a final settlement of all the questions arising from the former subjection of Latvia to Russia, have decided to commence negotiations for peace and to conclude as soon as possible a lasting, honourable and just peace. For this purpose they have appointed as their representatives:
The Government of the Federal Socialist Republic of Russian Soviets :
Adolphe Abramovitch JOFFE, and
Jacob Stanislavovitch HANETSKI.
The Government of the Democratic Republic of Latvia :
These representatives being assembled at Moscow and having mutually examined the powers with which furnished, which were recognised to be in good and due form, agreed on the following terms
The state of war between the Contracting Parties shall cease from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
By virtue of the principle proclaimed by the Federal Socialist Republic of the Russian Soviets, which establishes the right of self-determination for all nations, even to the point of total separation from the States with which they have been incorporated, and in view of the desire expressed by the Latvian people to possess an independent national existence. Russia unreservedly recognises the independence and sovereignty of the Latvian State and voluntarily and irrevocably renounces all sovereign rights over the Latvian people and territory which formerly belonged to Russia under the then existing constitutional law as well as under international Treaties, which, in the sense here indicated, shall in future cease to be valid. The previous status of subjection of Latvia to Russia shall not entail any obligation towards Russia on the part of the Latvian people or territory.
The state frontier between Russia and Latvia shall be fixed as follows : Starting from the Esthonian frontier between the villages of Babina and Vuimorsk, through Vuimorsk, along the river Cloubotsa through Vachkova, then along the little river Opotchna and the rivers Opotchka and Viada as far as Doubinina. Here by the shortest route it reaches the river Koukhva, then along the river Koukhva, and along its tributary the river Pelega, as far as
Oumemichi. From there in a straight line towards the river Outroia as far as the letter “V” of the word “Kailov” ; along the rive Outoia as far as the bend which it forms at Malaja Melnitsa; from there in a straight line to the curve of the river Lja, 2 versts to the North of the word “Sarina.” Then along the river Lja and the administrative frontier of districts of Lutsin, Rejitsa and Dvinsk with those of Opotchesk, Sebej, and Drissa as far as Pazina on the river Ossounitsa: then in a straight line across the White Lake, the Black Lake and the lake between Vassilieva and Mossichki ; through the farm of Saveiki as far as the mouth of the narrow river which runs into the Western Dvina between Koskovstsi and the farm and village of Novoje Selo, then along the Western Dvina as far as the farm of Chafranovo.
Fourteen days after the ratification of the Treaty the Contracting Parties each undertake to withdraw their troops as far as the state frontier of their own territory.
NOTE (1). The frontiers indicated in this article are marked in red on the map (Scale 3 versts to the inch) annexed to this article. In case of difference between the text and the map, the text shall be considered valid.
NOTE (2). The fixing of the State frontier between Russia and Latvia and the placing of frontier posts shall be carried out by a special Mixed Frontier Commission composed of an equal number of delegates from both Parties. As regards the actual marking of the frontier and the allocation of inhabited points, across which the frontier passes, to the territory of one or other of the Contracting Parties, the decisions of this Frontier Commission shall be based on ethnographic and economic considerations. In cases when basing its decisions on ethnographic and economic conditions this Mixed Commission shall fix a frontier on rivers or lakes ; the frontier shall follow the central line of the river or lake without taking into consideration whether the former administrative frontier passed on either bank of such river or lake.
NOTE (3). IN rivers and lakes forming part of the frontier the artificial withdrawal , from rivers and lakes forming part of the frontier, of waters liable to cause a lowering of the AVERAGE level is forbidden. In the case of such rivers and lakes navigation and fishing shall form the subject of regulations established by mutual agreement; in fishing, only such instruments shall be sanctioned as do not cause any risk of exhausting the supply of fishes in these waters,
The two Contracting Parties undertake
(1) To forbid any army to remain on either territory except their own army or that of friendly States with which one of the Contracting Parties has concluded a military Convention, but which are not in a de facto state of war with either Contracting Party ; and also to forbid, within the limits of their respective territory the mobilisation and recruiting of any personnel intended for the armies of States, organisations, or groups, for purposes of armed conflict against the other Contracting Party.
NOTE: The names given to certain units forming the " Division of Latvian Chasseurs " which at present forms part of the Russian Army, shall be recognised by the two Parties as having only an historic significance. These units have not and shall not have in the future a predominance of Latvian national element, and in spite of their name shall have no connexion either with the people or with the State of Latvia.
Consequently the fact that these detachments preserve their historic name shall not be considered by Latvia as any infringement of this clause.
Both parties undertake not to give to their military units new titles derived from geographical or national names of the other party.
(2) Not to permit the formation or residence in their territory of organisations or groups of any kind claiming to represent the Government of all or part of the territory of the other Contracting Party ; or of representatives or officials of organisations or groups having as their object the overthrow of the Government of the other Contracting Party.
(3) To forbid Governments in a de facto state of war with the other Party, and Organisations and groups having as their object military action against the other Contracting Party, to transport through the their ports or their territory, anything which might used for military purposes against the other Contracting Party, in particular, military forces belonging to these States, organisations or groups ; material of war ; technical military stores belonging to artillery, supply services, engineers, or air services.
(4) To forbid, except in cases provided for by International Law, passage through or navigation in their territorial waters of all war-ships, gun-boats, torpedo-boats, etc., belonging either to organisations and groups whose object is military action against the other Contracting Party, or to Governments which are in state of war with the other Contracting Party and which aim at military action against the other Contracting Party. This provision shall come into force as soon as such intentions are known to the Contracting Party to whom the said territorial waters and ports belong.
The two parties mutually undertake not to claim the expenses of the war from each other. By this is understood the expenses incurred by the State for the conduct of the war, and likewise any compensations for losses occasioned by the war, that is losses occasioned to themselves or to their subjects by military operations, including all kinds of requisitions made by one of the Contracting Parties in the territory of the other.
In view of the fact that it is necessary to apportion in an equitable manner among the States of the world, the obligation to make good the damages caused by the world-war of 1914-1917 to States that have been ruined, or to portions of States on whose territory military operations have taken place, the two Contracting Parties undertake to do all in their power to secure an agreement among all States in order to establish an International Fund, which would be used to cover the sums intended for the reparation of damages due to the war.
Independently of the creation of this International Fund, the Contracting Parties consider it necessary that Russia and all new States constituting independent Republics in what was formerly Russian territory, should render each other, as far as possible, mutual support to make good from their own resources the damage caused by the world-war, and undertake to do all in their power to secure this agreement between the above-mentioned Republics.
Prisoners of war of both parties shall be repatriated as soon as possible. The method of exchange of prisoners is laid down in the Annex to this present Article.
NOTE : All captives who are not serving voluntarily in the Army of the Government which has made them prisoners shall be considered as prisoners of war.
ANNEX. - (1) Prisoners of the two contracting Parties shall be repatriated unless, with the consent of the Government on whose territory they are, they express the desire to remain in the country in which they are or to proceed to any other country.
(2) At the time of their liberation, their papers and belongings, which may have been taken from them by order of the authorities of the Government which made them prisoner, shall be returned to them. Likewise, money earned by their work and not yet paid or credited to them shall be paid to them.
(3) Each of the contracting parties undertakes to repay expenses which it has incurred for the maintenance of its citizens who have been prisoners of war, so far as these expenses have not been made good by the work of the said. prisoners of war on Government or private undertakings. This repayment shall be made in the currency of the country which captured the prisoners.
NOTE : The indemnity due for the expenses of maintenance of prisoners of war included the cost of their food, their clothing and their pay.
(4) Prisoners shall be despatched by detachments towards the frontiers of their State at the expense of the Government which made them prisoners ; when handed over they shall be accompanied by a list on which shall be noted the Christian name, father's Christian name, and family name of the prisoner, the date on which he was made prisoner, and the place at which he worked during his captivity.
(5) Immediately after the ratification of the Treaty of Peace there shall be established, for exchange of prisoners of war, a Mixed Commission composed of three representatives of each of the Contracting Parties. Its duties shall be to supervise the carrying out of the conditions stated in the present Annex, to settle the periods, the methods and the order of repatriation of prisoners, and the expenses in accordance with the data given at the moment of the handing over of prisoners of war by the party concerned.
(6) The return of civilian and military interned persons, being nationals of the Contracting Parties, and also of hostages, shall be carried out at the request of the other Party on the basis already laid down.
Persons residing, on the day of the ratification of the Treaty within the frontiers of Latvia, and likewise refugees residing in Russia who were registered, or whose parents were registered, before August 1st, 1914, in urban, rural or corporate societies, in the territory now forming the State of Latvia, are recognised as Latvian citizens.
Persons of the same category residing at the moment of ratification of this present Treaty within the frontiers of Russia, with the exception of the refugee, above-mentioned, are recognised as Russian subjects.
Nevertheless, any person of the age of 18 years and above, residing in Latvian territory, has the right during one year, dating from the day of the ratification of the present Treaty,
To declare that he does not desire to retain his Latvian nationality and to opt in favor of Russia; and in this case children of less than 18 years of age and wives acquire the latter nationality, unless an agreement to the contrary has been concluded between the married couple.
Likewise, Russian citizens can, under the terms of the second paragraph of this clause, during the same period of time and under the same conditions, opt for the status of Latvian citizens.
Those who have made a declaration of option, and likewise those of their family, to whom the nationality is transmitted, retain their rights to their movable property and real estate within the limits of the laws in force in the State which they inhabit, and in case of departure they have the right to liquidate or carry away whatever belongs to them.
NOTE (1). Persons living at the time of the ratification of this Treaty in the territory of a third State, who are not naturalised and who fall within the provisions of the first paragraph of this article, are also recognized as citizens of Latvia, but preserve the right, under the conditions laid down, of opting for Russian nationality.
NOTE (2). Persons who, before or during the world-war of 1914-1917, were living in the territory of one of the Parties, and who at the time of the ratification of this Treaty are living in the territory of the other Party, shall also enjoy the rights anted under this Article to persons exercising the right of option.
Refugees who may have been able to remove their property in virtue of the Agreement of June 12, 1920, regarding the repatriation of refugees, shall enjoy the rights laid down in the Article dealing with optants, subject to proof that such property belongs to them, and was actually in their possession at the time of repatriation.
NOTE (3). Each of the two Contracting Parties shall grant to citizens of the other Party, in the same way as to optants, permission and facilities for returning freely to their own country, and generally for leaving the territory of the State of the other Party. In the same way, each of the two Contracting Parties undertakes to demobolise the citizens of the other Party immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty.
The Agreement as to the repatriation of refugees , concluded between Russia and Latvia, on June 12th of the current year, shall remain in force with the following addition : refugees of both Parties shall. in addition to the rights granted to them under the above-mentioned Agreement, enjoy the rights conferred by the present Treaty of Peace on citizens and optants of the Party concerned.
The two Contracting Parties mutually abandon all claims arising from the fact that Latvia once formed part of Russia, and recognise that national property of every kind in the territory of each of the Parties shall be the indisputable property of the State concerned. The right to claim Russian State property transported since August 1st , 1914, out of Latvian territory to the territory of a third State shall rest with the Latvian Government.
In the same way rights which may be claimed by Russia over legal entities or over other States are also transferred to the Latvian State, in so far as such rights concern Latvian territory.
The Latvian State takes over all claims of the Russian Treasury against property situated within Latvian territory, as well as credits of every kind against Latvian citizens, but only in so far as they have not been met by payments on account.
NOTE : The right to claim from small peasant proprietors their debts towards the former Russian Peasant Land Bank or towards other Russian Land Banks which have now been nationalized, as well as the right to claim debts contracted towards the former Russian Nobility Land Bank or towards other Russian Land Banks which to-day have been nationalised debts which are a burden on the lands of these proprietors, in view of the fact that such lands have passed to peasants possessing little or no land- shall not pass to het Latvian Government; such debts shall be simply cancelled.
All deed s and documents forming proofs of the above-mentioned rights shall be transmitted to the Latvian Government by the Russian Government as soon as the latter obtains possession of them. In cases where such transmission cannot be effected within the period of one year after the ratification of this Treaty, such documents and deeds not transmitted shall be considered as lost.
(1) The Russian Government shall at its own expense restore to Latvia and return to the Latvian Government all libraries, records, museums, works of art, educational material, documents and other property of educational and scientific establishments, Government, religious and communal property and property of incorporated institutions, in so far , as such objects were removed from Latvian territory during the world-war of 1914-1917, and in so far as they are or may be actually in the possession of the Governmental or Public administrative bodies of Russia.
In respect of records, libraries, museums, works of art and documents which are of supreme importance for Latvia from a scientific, artistic or historical point of view, and which were removed from Latvia into Russia before the world-war of 1914-1917, the Russian Government consents to restore such property to Latvia in so far as such restoration shall not cause serious loss to the Russian records, libraries, museums, and picture galleries in which they are kept.
Questions concerning such restoration shall be submitted to the decision of a Mixed Commission formed of an equal number of members for each of the contracting parties.
(2) The Russian Government shall restore at its own expense and return to the Latvian Government all files concerning affairs of justice and of the State, all legal and governmental records including records of notaries of the first and second class, records of administration of land, railways, forests, highroads, posts and telegraphs, and other administrations : plans, estimates, maps, and, in general, all topographical materials of the Military district of Vilna in so far as they concern the territory of the Latvian State: records of local branches of the Nobility and Peasant Banks, of the branches of the State Bank and of all other establishments for credit for mutual insurance and for co-operative purposes, as well as the records and files of private administrations of Latvia, in so far as such objects are or will be actually in Possession of the Governmental or Public institutions of Russia.
(3) The Russian Government shall give up at its own expense and send to the Latvian Government to be allocated to those concerned titles to property of every kind, such as : deeds of purchase, mortgages, farm leases contracts and contracts of all kinds, etc. ; also all books, papers and documents necessary for making up accounts, and in general all documents any value in determining rights of property of Latvian citizens who have been evacuated from Latvia into Russia during the world-war of 1914-1917, in so far as such documents are or will be actually in the possession of Governmental or Public institutions of Russia.
Should these documents not be restored within two years from the date of the ratification of the present Treaty, they will be considered as lost.
(4) Russia undertakes to withdraw from the archives of its central and local administrations such of the documents as directly concern the provinces forming part of Latvia.
(1) The Russian Government restores to Latvia all property which was evacuated to Russia during the world- war of 1914-1917, belonging to religious, civil, charitable or educational administrations, together with the bells and objects used for purposes of worship in churches and convents of all denominations, in so far as such objects are, or may be actually in the possession of the Governmental or Public administrations of Russia.
(2) The Russian Government restores to Latvia the securities evacuated to Russia after the 1st August, 1914, which had been Deposited with or belonged to commercial or credit institutions, such as Banks, Mutual Loan Societies, Savings Banks and Mortgage Institutions, Municipal Public Banks and Pawnbrokers’ Establishments, which were in operation within the territory of Latvia, with the exception of gold ,precious stones and banknotes, in so far as theses securities are, or may be, actually in the possession of the Governmental or Public institutions of Russia.
(3) As far as concerns the payment of Russian State Loans, guaranteed by the Government, which are in circulation within the territory of Latvia, and also all loans issued by Companies and private administrations, whose undertakings have been nationalised by the Russian Government, and also as far as concerns the settlement of the claims of Latvian nationals upon the Russian Treasury, and upon the undertakings which have been nationalised, Russia undertakes to grant to Latvia, to Latvian nationals and administrations, all rights, advantages and preferences which are directly or indirectly assured to Latvia, or which may be granted to any third State, or to nationals or institutions of such third State. If any securities or titles to property are missing, the Russian Government declares itself prepared in accordance with this paragraph to recognise as holders of the securities above referred to, those persons who shall be in a position to prove that the securities which belong to them were evacuated during the war.
(3) As far as concerns Savings Bank Deposits, Bank balances, and guarantees for loans and other sums deposited in the former institutions of justice or of Government. in so far as such sums are the property of Latvian nationals, and also as far as concerns payments or sums above mentioned, which may have been deposited in the branches of the former State Bank, or in private credit institutions, or their branches, which have been liquidated or nationalised in so far as such sums or deposits belong to Latvian nationals, the Russian Government undertakes to accord to such Latvian nationals all the rights which were formerly accorded to all Russian Nationals, and accordingly, authorizes Latvian nationals, who, by reason of the occupation, may not have been able to assert such claims now.
In the payment of the indemnity for claims of Latvian nationals, the Russian Government will take account of the depreciation in the value of Russian money since the 3rd Septermber,1917, the date of the actual occupation of Latvia, up to the date of the payment of the sums refunded.
(5) The provisions of Sub-Paragraph 4 the present Article shall be observed as regards securities and credit balances which are, or were deposited, in banks or strong-rooms, if such securities or balances are the property of Latvian nationals, and are, or may be, actually in the possession of Governmental or Pub institutions. These provisions are also applicable to securities and property of Latvian nationals deposited in credit institutions or in the strong rooms of such institutions, which have be evacuated since 1st August, 1914.
-NOTE : The sums, securities and property referred to in this paragraph will be transmitted to the Latvian Government, which will undertake to deliver them to the rightful owners.
The Russian Government restores to the Latvian Government for delivery to the rightful owners the property belonging from a legal or material point of view, to Latvian town corporations or individuals which was evacuated during the world-war, 1914-1917, in so far as such property is, or may be, in the possession of Governmental or Public institutions.
NOTE (1). In case of doubt, the majority of the shares which were the property of Latvian nationals before the coming into force of the Decree of the Russian Government as to the nationalisation of industry, shall be recognised as belonging to Latvian Joint Stock Companies and Associations.
NOTE (2). The present Article does not refer to capital, deposit, or securities which are in the branches of the State Bank, or in private banks, credit institutions or savings banks situated in Latvian territory.
(1) As far as concerns postal, telegraphic and telephonic material evacuated from Latvia into Russia during the world-war of 1914-1917, Russia undertakes to restore to Latvia and to transfer to the Latvian Government an amount equal to that which really represents the economic needs of Latvia and the intellectual life of this independent State, in so far as the said material is, or may be in the possession of the Governmental and Public institutions of Russia.
(2) As far as concerns the material for purposes of navigation and water transport, and as far as concerns the light-houses in service in Latvian ports, which may have been evacuated during the war, Russia undertakes to return to Latvia and to restore to the Latvian Government, an amount of material exactly corresponding to the needs of Latvia as an independent Government for the working of its ports, in so far as this material is, or may be, actually in the possession of the Governmental or Public institutions of Russia.
(3) As far as concerns the rolling-stocks of fixed railway material, including work-shops evacuated from Latvia into Russia during the world-war of 1914-1917, Russia undertakes to restore to Latvia and to transmit to the Latvian Government an amount of material equal to that which actually corresponds to the economic needs of Latvia as an independent Government, in so far as such material is, or may be, actually in the possession of the Governmental or Public institutions of Russia.
In order to determine exactly the quantity of material referred to above which is to be
restored, and also to determine the periods within which such material shall be delivered, a mixed Commission, composed of Russian and Latvian Representatives in equal proportions, shall be set up immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty of Peace. This Commission shall base its estimate of the material to be restored upon the economic situation of the districts which, under the present Treaty, constitute the country of Latvia as it was before the war of 1914-1917. After having set apart and deducted the material which ensured the maintenance of trade and national transport for the whole of (former) Russia, the Commission shall definitely decide what are the requirements of Latvia, as at present constituted, as an independent State, while Commission shall base its estimate of the material to be restored upon the economic situation of the districts which, under the present Treaty, constitute the country of Latvia as it was before the war of 1914-1917. After having set apart and deducted the material which ensured the maintenance of trade and national transport for the whole of (former) Russia, the Commission shall definitely decide what are the requirement of Latvia, as at present constituted, as an independent State, while taking into consideration the general decrease in economic activity.
In order to facilitate the carrying-out of Articles 10,11,12, 13 and 14 of the present Treaty, the Russian Government undertakes to furnish the Latvian Government with full and complete information with regard to these Articles, and to afford it every kind of assistance in its task of determining the property, documents and archives to be restored.
Property which has to be given back to Latvia in accordance with the foregoing Articles may be restored, by agreement between Russia and Latvia, either in kind or in its equivalent. money-value.
On account of the sums which may be due to Latvia in this way, Russia shall pay Latvia, within two months of the ratification of the Treaty, the sum of 4,000,000 gold roubles.
- Taking into consideration the damage suffered by Latvia owing to the world-war of 19l4-
1917, Russia : -
(1) Exempts Latvia from all responsibility with regard to all the debts and obligations of Russia, including the issue of paper-money Treasury Bonds resulting from Treasury obligations or receipts. With regard to the domestic and foreign loans of the Russian Empire, guarantees, or loans contracted by various institutions and undertakings, etc. All claims of this nature, lodged by creditors of Russia must be exclusively addressed to Russia.
(2) With a view to assisting the Latvian peasants in the restoration of buildings destroyed in the course of the war, the latter is accorded the right to cut down wood over an area of one hundred thousand deciatines, in as close proximity as possible to the Latvian frontier and also to railways and navigable rivers ; the procedure for giving effect to this concession shall be decided by a mixed Russo-Latvian Commission composed of an equal number of representatives of both countries. This Commission shall be set up immediately after the ratification of the Treaty.
(1) The contracting parties have agreed to conclude, immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty, commercial and transit agreements, consular, postal and telegraphic conventions, and a convention relating to the deepening of the bed of the western reaches of the Dvina.
(2) Pending the conclusion of these commercial and transit agreements, the Contracting Parties are agreed that their economic relations shall be governed according to the following principles :-
(a) The two parties guarantee to each other the “most-favoured-nation treatment.”
(b) Goods in transit through the territory of the Contracting Parties are exempt from all taxes and customs-duties.
(c) Freight-rates applied to goods in transit must not be higher than the rates applied to goods of the same nature of national origin.
(1) Property bequeathed by a national of one of the Contracting Parties, but situated in the territory of the other, shall be transferred in its entirety to the Consul or Representative of the Government of the country to which the deceased belonged, to be disposed of according to the laws of the country of origin of the deceased.
The Contracting Parties bind themselves simultaneously to take the necessary steps to ensure the safe navigation of trading vessels in their waters by organizing the necessary pilot services, and by reestablishing light houses and buoys in dangerous zone ; and they bind themselves to do all that is necessary with a view to the location of mine-fields until they have been completely swept.
The two Contracting Parties have agreed to take part in the work of sweeping for mines in the Baltic. With this object an agreement will be concluded between the two parties. An arbitration tribunal will assign to each party its share in this work in the event of their failing to agree upon this point.
Diplomatic and consular relations between the Contracting Parties will be renewed immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty.
After the ratification of the present Treaty Latvian citizens, and those who opt for Latvian nationality, on the one hand, and Russian citizens and those who opt for Russian nationality, on the other hand, military and civilians alike, shall ne amnestied by the Russian and Latvian Governments respectively from all penalties for political or disciplinary offences. If judgment in respect of such offences has not yet been pronounced the case shall be dismissed.
Persons committing any of the above-mentioned offences after the ratification of the present Treaty shall not benefit by this amnesty.
Persons undergoing trial, or who have been convicted or arrested for crimes and offences against common law committed before the ratification of the present Treaty, as well as those who are undergoing sentences for the same offences, shall be immediately handed over to their Government, if the fatter should so desire ; all documents connected with their cases shall also be handed over at the time of extradition.
The two Contracting Parties shall, at the same time, amnesty their own nationals from penalties for offences committed to the advantage of the other party before the signature of the present Treaty.
NOTE (1). The provisions of the foregoing paragraph relating to amnesty and extradition are only applicable to persons whom sentence has not been passed at the time of the signature of the present Treaty.
NOTE (2). Russian subjects, and persons opting for Russian nationality, who took part in the conspiracy of April 16, 1919 and in Bermondt’s attack, shall not benefit under the provisions of this paragraph.
The solution of questions relating to public or domestic legislation which may arise between the Government of one country and the citizens of the other country, shall be entrusted to a Mixed Commission consisting of an equal number from both sides to be appointed immediately after the ratification of the present Treaty. The composition, rights, and obligations of this Commission shall be laid down in instructions which are to be drawn up by agreement between the two contracting parties.
The present Treaty is drawn up in Russian and Lettish.
For purposes of interpretation both texts are to be regarded as official.
The present Treaty is to be submitted for ratification and shall come into force from the moment of ratification, except as otherwise provided in the Treaty.
The exchange of letters of ratification shall take place at Moscow.
In all cases, in the present Treaty, in which reference is made to the time of ratification of the Treaty, this is to be understood to mean the time of exchange of letters of ratification.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the representatives of the two Contracting Parties have signed the present Treaty and have affixed their seals thereto.
The original text is in duplicate.
DONE at Moscow, completed and signed at Riga on the 11th August, 1920.
 Translated by the Secretariat of the League of Nations